2009
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Abstract: Previously we showed that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) promotes sustained phosphorylation of Akt in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and that Akt phosphorylation is required for survival of these cells. The direct mechanisms, however, by which IGF-I promotes Akt phosphorylation are currently undefined. Recently, cholesterol-enriched membranes (CEMs) have been implicated in regulation of growth factor-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and survival of mature oligodendrocytes; however, le… Show more

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“…However, selective IGF-I stimulation of the IGF-1R in vitro under conditions where insulin levels are sufficient only to stimulate the insulin receptor but not the IGF-IR revealed roles for IGF signalling per se in OPC proliferation and protein synthesis as well as survival (Jiang et al, 2001; Ness et al, 2002; Ness and Wood, 2002; Frederick and Wood, 2004; Cui and Almazan, 2007; Frederick et al, 2007; Romanelli et al, 2007, 2009; Bibollet-Bahena and Almazan, 2009; Min et al, 2012). The effect of IGF-I in multiple processes during development of this lineage has made it difficult to determine whether IGF-I also directly regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation.…”
Section: Mtor In Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Cns/pns Myelinationmentioning
“…IGF-1 is known to activate PI3K and its downstream target Akt, a serine threonine kinase, also known as protein kinase [1012]. IGF-1 binding to its receptor with downstream activation of PI3K and Akt has been demonstrated [13, 14].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…LY294002, as a synthetic compound [Walker et al, 2000], has been used widely as pharmaceutical tools for the involvement of the PI3K pathway in various biological systems [Romanelli et al, 2009; Tang et al, 2009]. For example, LY294002 has been shown to inhibit rat NPC proliferation [Hsu et al, 2005; Hu et al, 2010], which suggested that PI3K/AKT signal has been implicated in cell cycle control.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Activation of the PI-3 kinase pathway has been shown to regulate OPC differentiation both in culture (Ebner et al 2000;Romanelli et al 2009) and in vivo (Flores et al 2000). Constitutively active Akt transgenic mice show striking hypermyelination (Narayanan et al 2009), that is prevented by downstream inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by rapamycin.…”
Section: Opc To Oligodendrocyte Differentiationmentioning
“…Plasma membrane lipid rafts have been suggested to provide a dynamic platform for IGF1R to function in colon carcinoma cells, and may be key to its activation (Remacle‐Bonnet et al, ). Disruption of the cholesterol‐enriched membranes led to the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol‐3‐kinase (PI3K)/AKT activity mediated by IGF1 (Romanelli et al, ), while we previously demonstrated that TRAIL induced the activation of IGF1R following IGF1R translocation into lipid rafts (Xu et al, ). Caveolae are micro‐domains of lipid rafts whose main component is caveolin‐1 (CAV1) (Nabi and Le, ).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning