The variations of wintertime surface air temperature (SAT) and the occurrences of cold surges over east Asia in association with the Madden and Julian Oscillation (MJO) are examined. The MJO is defined as a combination of the two leading empirical orthogonal function modes of 850 and 200 hPa zonal winds and outgoing longwave radiation in the tropics. The spatial pattern and magnitude of SAT anomalies over east Asia significantly change with respect to MJO phases. Composite analysis reveals that the MJO-SA…
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