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Cited by 22 publications
(7 citation statements)
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References 5 publications
(5 reference statements)
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“…Although the pulse-flame generator (Otto et al, 1974) does not duplicate processes such as flame quenching by cylinder walls and the mixing which occurs in an engine, it does provide a convenient laboratory method for the controlled combustion of fuels and the rapid transport of the combustion products to a subsystem for study. The pulse-flame generator has been used as a method for studying performance of automotive exhaust catalysts under various conditions yielding results which correlate well with results from engine studies (Otto et al, 1974;Otto and Montreuil, 1976; Gandhi et al, 1977; Otto and Sulak, 1978).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 67%
“…Although the pulse-flame generator (Otto et al, 1974) does not duplicate processes such as flame quenching by cylinder walls and the mixing which occurs in an engine, it does provide a convenient laboratory method for the controlled combustion of fuels and the rapid transport of the combustion products to a subsystem for study. The pulse-flame generator has been used as a method for studying performance of automotive exhaust catalysts under various conditions yielding results which correlate well with results from engine studies (Otto et al, 1974;Otto and Montreuil, 1976; Gandhi et al, 1977; Otto and Sulak, 1978).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 67%
“…The differing behaviors of the heavy‐metals‐poisoned microfish robots could be explained as follows. Pb 2+ is known to be strongly adsorbed on the platinum: these ions cover the active sites of the platinum, resulting in the decrease in activity of the platinum catalytic sites 25. Many reports have shown that the adsorption of the lead ion on platinum is irreversible,33 and it is often termed as a permanent poison 34.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…This is of particular concern, because the accumulation of such pollutants is detrimental to human health 23. Platinum has been demonstrated to show sensitivity towards poisoning effects, because minute concentrations of heavy metals are known to retard the efficiency of catalytic convertors24, 25 and also inhibit organic reactions during catalysis 26. To evaluate the effects of poisoning by heavy metals, the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide over platinum has been used as a model of study 27.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In the first few years of tetraethyllead additive production, bromine was added to gasoline in the form of triethylbromine, along with carbon tetrachloride and, later, trichloroethylene. Since the early 1940s, leaded automotive gasoline has contained EDB and 1 ,ZDCA in proportion to the amount of tetraalkyllead with a molar ratio of Pb:Cl:Br of 1:2:1 (Hirschler et al 1957;Momss et al 1958;Working Group on Lead Contamination 1965;Pierrard 1969;Robbins and Snitz 1972;Otto and Montreuil 1976;Leinster et al 1978;Jacobs 1980;Williamson et al 1980;Lane 1980;Pignatello and Cohen 1990;Alexeeff et al 1990, Thomas et al 1997. Since the early 1940s, leaded automotive gasoline has contained EDB and 1 ,ZDCA in proportion to the amount of tetraalkyllead with a molar ratio of Pb:Cl:Br of 1:2:1 (Hirschler et al 1957;Momss et al 1958;Working Group on Lead Contamination 1965;Pierrard 1969;Robbins and Snitz 1972;Otto and Montreuil 1976;Leinster et al 1978;Jacobs 1980;Williamson et al 1980;Lane 1980;Pignatello and Cohen 1990;Alexeeff et al 1990, Thomas et al 1997.…”
Section: History Of Leaded Gasoline Additivesmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In 1925, the triethylbromine was replaced with EDB, and EDB was the principal lead scavenger until the early 194Os, when 1.2-DCA was substituted for part of the EDB to reduce costs (Jacobs 1980;Thomas et al 1997). Since the early 1940s, leaded automotive gasoline has contained EDB and 1 ,ZDCA in proportion to the amount of tetraalkyllead with a molar ratio of Pb:Cl:Br of 1:2:1 (Hirschler et al 1957;Momss et al 1958;Working Group on Lead Contamination 1965;Pierrard 1969;Robbins and Snitz 1972;Otto and Montreuil 1976;Leinster et al 1978;Jacobs 1980;Williamson et al 1980;Lane 1980;Pignatello and Cohen 1990;Alexeeff et al 1990, Thomas et al 1997. Aviation gasoline does not contain 1,ZDCA and uses a Pb:Br molar ratio of 1:2, or twice the amount of bromine as the standard automotive motor mix (Jacobs 1980;Lane 1980;Cohen 1990, Thomas et al 1997).…”
Section: History Of Leaded Gasoline Additivesmentioning
confidence: 99%