Ryan G. Snodgrass, Shurong Huang, Il-Whan Choi, John C. Rutledge, Daniel H. Hwang
Many studies have shown that TLR4 and TLR2 deficient mice are protected from high fat diet-induced inflammation and insulin resistance, suggesting that saturated fatty acids derived from the high fat diet activate TLR-mediated proinflammatory signaling pathways and induce insulin resistance. However, evidence that palmitic acid, the major dietary saturated fatty acid, can directly activate TLR has not been demonstrated. Here we present multiple lines of evidence showing that palmitic acid directly activates T…
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