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“…Top-down methods, such as electron-beam or nanoimprint lithography, have been successfully used for preparing well-defined Au or other metallic nanostructures on Si. 23 , 40 43 They require, however, expensive and elaborated lab equipment and clean-room conditions. 40 , 41 , 44 , 45 Densely packed AuNP films can be formed via self-assembly at a liquid/liquid interface, which can be later transferred to a planar substrate.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Top-down methods, such as electron-beam or nanoimprint lithography, have been successfully used for preparing well-defined Au or other metallic nanostructures on Si. , They require, however, expensive and elaborated lab equipment and clean-room conditions. ,,, Densely packed AuNP films can be formed via self-assembly at a liquid/liquid interface, which can be later transferred to a planar substrate. However, the postfunctionalization of the AuNPs with a structure-directing molecule, such as mercapto-polyethylene glycol, 1-dodecanethiol, acrylamide molecules, or perfluorodecanethiol, complicates the approach, while the deposition of the resulting AuNP monolayers on substrates with complex topographies, such as VA-SiNW arrays, has not been successfully demonstrated. The self-assembly of presynthesized AuNPs on functionalized Si, on the other hand, offers a low-cost and simple route that is amenable for mass-production and is compatible with the coating of nanostructured silicon. ,,, The self-assembly process is self-limited, providing the opportunity to control AuNP coverage, and is potentially compatible with NPs of different sizes, compositions, and shapes. ,, However, the preparation of substrates with homogeneous AuNP assemblies providing uniform E-field enhancements over large areas remains a challenge. , To prepare such AuNPs@Si substrates, silanes containing amino- or mercapto-groups have been previously used to form siloxane bonds with the Si surface and to direct the assembly of AuNPs at the Si surface either via electrostatic interaction or covalent bonding. , Both the Si functionalization and the AuNP assembly step are sensitive to the experimental conditions. Among others, the quality of the silane layer is highly affected by the presence of water, temperature, heating speed, reaction time, and silane concentration, as well as the storage conditions after the functionalization itself has been completed. , The AuNP assembly on the Si surface is also sensitive to the pH and ionic strength of the solution, AuNP size and capping ligand, and immersion time in the AuNP solution. ,,, This self-assembly process is further complicated if topographically structured substrates, such as SiNWs, are to be uniformly coated because geometric restrictions may cause changes in accessibility and concentration profiles of the NPs to be deposited.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Here, a former Blu‐ray Disc and DVD manufacturing process was adapted to generate injection molded parts from COP. Further details on the injection molding process have been reported in Prinz et al [ 5 ] Although injection molding is also capable of realizing nanostructures for the SERS effect, it typically generates components with thicknesses above 600 μm, not suitable for fabrication of ultrathin backplanes as those show in next paragraph.…”
Section: Microfluidic Chip Fabricationmentioning
“…The design and manufacturing of SERS plasmonic substrates is still a challenge [5] at both laboratory research and industrial manufacturing scale to overcome the following limitations: 1) the interaction between the SERS surface and the analyte causing the degradation of the SERS substrates with time and resulting in a decrease of the signal; 2) poor selectivity of the substrates for a given analyte; 3) limited reusability of substrates; and 4) nonhomogeneity and nonreproducibility of the SERS signal within a substrate. Therefore, the fabrication of SERS substrates is a topic of continuous research and improvement, with several paths advanced at the lab scale, but with their mass production facing the challenge of exploring large-scale Both surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and microfluidics are increasing their presence in industry.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…21, special focus is placed on new 3D plasmonic sensing platforms, characterization and assessment of their biosensor performance, and a procedure to develop and validate biosensors for relevant biomedical and environmental purposes. An industrial perspective of the industrial realization of plasmonic devices, especially for life science, including examples of in vitro diagnostics, is given by Prinz et al 22 Going beyond passive functionalities, new frontiers have recently been opened in the field by considering active, nonlinear, or dynamically tunable systems. As an example, the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of ferromagnetic multilayers Au/Ni81Fe19 with magneto-optical (MO) activity enhanced by a plasmon resonance is exploited in spintronic-plasmonic metasurfaces.…”
Section: Journal Of Applied Physicsmentioning