Ovarian cancer is characterized by dysbiosis, referred to as oncobiosis in neoplastic diseases. In ovarian cancer, oncobiosis was identified in numerous compartments, including the tumor tissue itself, the upper and lower female genital tract, serum, peritoneum, and the intestines. Colonization was linked to Gram-negative bacteria with high inflammatory potential. Local inflammation probably participates in the initiation and continuation of carcinogenesis. Furthermore, local bacterial colonies in the peritoneum may facilitate metastasis formation in ovarian cancer. Vaginal infections (e.g. Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis) increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Bacterial metabolites, produced by the healthy eubiome or the oncobiome, may exert autocrine, paracrine, and hormone-like effects, as was evidenced in breast cancer or pancreas adenocarcinoma. We discuss the possible involvement of lipopolysaccharides, lysophosphatides and tryptophan metabolites, as well as, short-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids and polyamines in the carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer. We discuss the applicability of nutrients, antibiotics, and probiotics to harness the microbiome and support ovarian cancer therapy. The oncobiome and the most likely bacterial metabolites play vital roles in mediating the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Finally, we discuss the potential of oncobiotic changes as biomarkers for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer and microbial metabolites as possible adjuvant agents in therapy.