volume 20, issue 6, P745-751 1995
DOI: 10.1007/bf01705544
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Abstract: Extracellular fluid levels of glutamate were measured in the locus coeruleus during butorphanol (a mixed agonist at mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors) withdrawal by using microdialysis in conscious butorphanol-dependent Sprague-Dawley rats. Guide cannulae were implanted chronically and rats were given intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of butorphanol (26 nmol/1 microliter/hr) or saline (1 microliter/hr) for 3 days. Microdialysis probes (2 mm tip) were inserted into the locus coeruleus 24 hr befor…

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