Florus C. de Jong, Vera C. Rutten, Tahlita C. M. Zuiverloon, Dan Theodorescu
Abstract:In high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC), patient outcome is negatively affected by lack of response to Bacillus-Calmette Guérin (BCG) treatment. Lack of response to cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and cisplatin ineligibility reduces successful treatment outcomes in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients. The effectiveness of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in metastatic disease has stimulated its evaluation as a treatment option in HR-NMIBC and MIBC patients. H…
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