This paper deals with a direct torque control for nine switches inverter fed two induction motors-based electric vehicles (EVs). In EVs application, the developed system will decrease the installation cost and weight (power electronic devices, position sensors, and mechanical differential). In this context, an adaptive direct torque control of nine switches Inverter which feeds two induction motors is proposed in order to ensure a separate control of two driving wheels and stability for the vehicle when cornering or under slippery road conditions. The experimental tests using dSPACE 1104 card are carried-out to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control solution, in terms of robustness and stability.electric vehicle, induction motor, direct torque control, nine switches inverter, dSPACE 1104
| INTRODUCTIONRecently, the strong growth of the transport sector is inevitable in order to satisfy the ever-increasing needs of rapid move or travel. With the growing problems of global warming, pollution, and the depletion of fossil resources, internal combustion engines are no longer suitable for transportation systems and new directions are needed. 1 For these reasons, several research works have been pushed by industry to develop electric-vehicles. This research aims at optimize the cost and energy of the electric powertrain. 1,2 In this context, an electric powertrain is generally composed of one or more electric motors, a power converter, and a measuring chain and instrumentation. In the electric vehicle motorization, induction motors are widely used due to their convenience in terms of robustness, compactness, reliability, and cost. 3 In order to ensure more maneuverability and good driving force distribution, the two driving wheel structure of electric vehicle turns out to be the most suitable. In addition, this structure offers the possibility to eliminate the LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS: DTC, direct torque control; EV, electric vehicle; IGBT, isolated gate bipolar transistor; IFOC, indirect field oriented control; ref, reference quantity; L A,B,C , inverter power legs; S A , B,C , inverter power switches; S L,M,U , lower, medium, and upper power switches; s, stator index; r, rotor index; u, i, voltage, current; U DC , direct voltage; U s , stator voltage vector; ψ s , ψ 0 s , stator flux of both induction motors; Γ e , Γ 0 e , torque of both induction motors; d Γ , d Γ 0 , torque errors of both motors; d ψ , d ψ 0 , flux errors of both motors; α, β, synchronous reference frame index; a, b, c, three phases reference frame index; S (1,…6) , sector number; T s , sampling time; ω m , induction motor speed; ω r , rotor electric speed; R s , stator resistance; L m , inductance (magnetizing inductance); L r , rotor inductance; L s , stator inductance; p, pole-pair number.