volume 76, issue 3, P585-593 2004
DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0104034
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Abstract: Synthetic phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) bearing unmethylated CpG motifs can mimic the immune-stimulatory effects of bacterial DNA and are recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Past studies have demonstrated that nucleotide modifications at positions at or near the CpG dinucleotides can severely affect immune modulation. However, the effect of nucleotide modifications to stimulate human leukocytes and the mechanism by which chemically modified CpG ODN induce this stimulation are not well und…

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