Activation of the innate immune response by bacteria is mediated by a group of molecules that have collectively been termed modulins (1). This family of molecules includes a wide variety of substances including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 1 from Gram-negative bacteria, lipoteichoic acid from Gram-positive bacteria, several different viral envelope glycoproteins, and flagellins from Gram-negative bacteria. Monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells respond to modulins by producing proinflammatory m…
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