1995
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.92.12.5510 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is found in mammalian cells cultured under reduced 02 tension and is necessary for transcriptional activation mediated by the erythropoietin gene enhancer in hypoxic cells. We (8,9).The molecular mechanisms that mediate genetic responses to hypoxia have been extensively investigated for the EPO gene, which encodes a growth factor that regulates erythropoiesis and, thus, blood 02-carrying capacity (1, 4). Cis-acting DNA sequences required for transcriptional activation in r… Show more

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“…Among HIF target genes are glycolytic genes (for example Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 (PGK1)) and genes involved in angiogenesis (for example Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)), which are key players in the hypoxic response (Greijer et al, 2005). The human genome encodes three homologous HIFa proteins, respectively HIF-1, -2 and -3a (Wang et al, 1995;Ema et al, 1997;Gu et al, 1998) and three prolyl hydroxylases (Epstein et al, 2001;Semenza, 2001). The mechanism of oxygen sensing via the HIF pathway is conserved throughout evolution.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
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“…Among HIF target genes are glycolytic genes (for example Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 (PGK1)) and genes involved in angiogenesis (for example Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)), which are key players in the hypoxic response (Greijer et al, 2005). The human genome encodes three homologous HIFa proteins, respectively HIF-1, -2 and -3a (Wang et al, 1995;Ema et al, 1997;Gu et al, 1998) and three prolyl hydroxylases (Epstein et al, 2001;Semenza, 2001). The mechanism of oxygen sensing via the HIF pathway is conserved throughout evolution.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…To determine whether HIF induces TWIST1 directly, we screened the genomic TWIST1 sequence for consensus HIF binding elements or HREs (Wang et al, 1995). We identified two potential HREs, 1(CGCGTG) and 2(TGCGTG), within 6 bp proximity within the only intron of TWIST1, located immediately downstream of the coding region that terminates in exon 1 (Figure 5a).…”
Section: Hif-2a Regulates Twist1 Intronic Hypoxia Response Elementsmentioning
“…Both subunits are constitutively expressed and belong to a family of basic helix-loop-helix-Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) transcriptional factors that are required both for DNA binding and for transactivation of an array of target genes. Whereas HIF-1β , also termed the aryl hydrocarbon nuclear receptor translocator (ARNT), can heterodimerize with other proteins containing the bHLH-PAS domain [7]. HIF-1α is the specific and oxygen-regulated subunit of the HIF-1 complex and determines the level of HIF-1 activity [8,9].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Under normoxia, the HIF-1α subunit is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, thus hampering the heterodimeric HIF-1 activity [10]. By contrast, under hypoxia or in the presence of iron chelators, the degradation of HIF-1α is prevented [7,11,12]. As a result, this stabilization initiates a multi-step pathway of activation of HIF-1α that includes hypoxia-dependent nuclear translocation and dimerization with ARNT to interact with hypoxia responwww.cell-research.com | Cell Research Qi Fang Li et al 549 npg sive element (HRE) of target genes such as erythropoietin (EPO) [13], vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [14], inducible nitric-oxide synthase [15], heme oxygenase 1 [16], and so on.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Since we were primarily interested in gene regulatory factors that were differentially regulated by the two culture conditions, we proceeded to document HIF-1␣ protein levels and binding activity in freshly isolated chondrocytes. We hypothesized that as chondrocytes form clusters in poly-HEMA culture, they become hypoxic and should therefore express HIF-1␣ (46). In order to address this hypothesis, we performed an EMSA to detect binding of HIF-1, which is a dimer of HIF-1␣ and HIF-1␤ (also known as aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator [ARNT]).…”
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