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“…A possible explanation is that CD117 + cells represent a very small percentage of the total huAFSC population and if not selected at the very early stages of cell culturing, they can be obscured to flow cytometric detection by the more abundant CD117 − cell population, which becomes more and more predominant passage after passage in culture. Noteworthy, regardless of being CD117 − , in our hands and in agreement with previous findings [5254], huAFSC showed a good differentiation potential, even after a number of passages in culture. They were able to undergo, when grown in appropriate medium, osteogenic or adipogenic commitment, as documented by the upregulation of early molecular markers and the occurrence of phenotypic changes (Figs.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
“…In the present work, stem cell factor receptor c‐kit was expressed by only 1% of the af‐MSCs. Although most previous studies were performed with c‐kit‐positive‐sorted af‐MSCs, recent work showed that c‐kit‐positive and c‐kit‐negative af‐MSCs mostly share the same differentiation potential, except that for myocardial differentiation [25]. Consequently, we selected af‐MSCs by direct adhesion because this method is suitable for clinical application and avoids cell sorting, which is expensive and time consuming.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Using a similar method, we have subjected the rat full-term AF cells to immuno-selection against c-kit, anticipating the isolation of stem cells with a wider differentiation spectrum. C-kit, a cell surface receptor specific for stem cell factor (SCF), has been used to serve as a valuable marker to identify undifferentiated ESCs that have higher potential to expand and differentiate (Bai et al, 2012;Chen et al, 2009;Deberry et al, 1997). The c-kit sorting procedure has been shown to be able to enrich pluripotent stem cells using AFSC and ESC cultures (Bollini et al, 2011;Gekas et al, 2010).…”
Section: Accepted Manuscriptmentioning
“…The types of cells found in human amniotic fluid are divided into three main groups-the epithelioid E-type cells, amniotic fluid-specific AF-type cells, and fibroblastic F-type cells-which are classified according to the morphological, biochemical, and growth properties [4,5]. E-type cells, which are round shaped and slow growing [6], are presumed to derive from the fetal skin and urine, while AF-type cells are from fetal membranes and trophoblast tissue (placenta) because these cells produce estrogen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and progesterone [1,7]. F-type cells are considered to originate from mesenchymal tissue due to lack of any hormone production, and they do not express human leukocyte class II (HLA-DR) surface antigen [8].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Accordingly, the isolation of amniotic fluid stem cells is very important for certain therapeutic purposes. Thus far, some methods have been established to isolate hAFS cells, such as a single cell isolation method and a cell surface marker-based sorting (Bai et al, 2012;Cananzi et al, 2012;Phermthai et al, 2010;Roubelakis et al, 2012). The protein CD117 is a receptor tyrosine kinase which is expressed on many stem cells (De Coppi et al, 2007;Edling and Hallberg, 2007;Leong et al, 2008).…”
Section: Instructionmentioning