2019
DOI: 10.1001/amajethics.2019.125
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How Should AI Be Developed, Validated, and Implemented in Patient Care?

Abstract: Should an artificial intelligence (AI) program that appears to have a better success rate than human pathologists be used to replace or augment humans in detecting cancer cells? We argue that some concerns-the "black-box" problem (ie, the unknowability of how output is derived from input) and automation bias (overreliance on clinical decision support systems)-are not significant from a patient's perspective but that expertise in AI is required to properly evaluate test results. Case Dr A is a pathologist who h… Show more

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Cited by 52 publications
(22 citation statements)
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“…In the light of the complex interplay of variables used in ML, surpassing the capabilities of the human brain, it will be more important than ever to validate those algorithms meticulously in prospective clinical trials [ 3 ]. After all, even if we may not be able to grasp the individual calculations the ML algorithm makes, we must be able to trust in the answers it provides.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In the light of the complex interplay of variables used in ML, surpassing the capabilities of the human brain, it will be more important than ever to validate those algorithms meticulously in prospective clinical trials [ 3 ]. After all, even if we may not be able to grasp the individual calculations the ML algorithm makes, we must be able to trust in the answers it provides.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…While ML may provide a valuable predictive tool, the clinical implementation often raises concerns due to model complexity, often referred to as the “black-box” problem [ 46 ]. One way of improving model understanding is to extract the most important features [ 48 ].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Now that AI systems can analyze complex algorithms and self-learning, we enter a new age in medicine where AI can be applied to clinical practice through risk assessment models, improving diagnosis accuracy and workflow efficiency. AI enabled tools are capable to identify the relationship in raw data and can be applied in most of the medical fields, including drug development [4,19], treatment decisions [20], patient care [21] and even financial and operational decisions. The recent uses of AI in medicine show that humans alone cannot tackle complex problems in a limited time without the assistance of AI [22].…”
Section: -1-how Is Ai Used In Healthcare?mentioning
confidence: 99%