Menopause is a natural physiological process in older women that is associated with reduced estrogen production and results in increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis. 17α-estradiol (17α-E2) treatment in males, but not females, reverses several metabolic conditions associated with advancing age, highlighting sexually dimorphic actions on age-related pathologies. In this study we sought to determine if 17α-E2 could prevent ovariectomy (OVX)-mediated detriments on adiposity and bone parameters in females. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were subjected to SHAM or OVX surgery and received dietary 17α-E2 during a six-week intervention period. We observed that 17α-E2 prevented OVX-induced increases in body weight and adiposity. Similarly, uterine weight and luminal cell thickness were decreased by OVX and prevented by 17α-E2 treatment. Interestingly, 17α-E2 prevented OVX-induced declines in tibial metaphysis cancellous bone. And similarly, 17α-E2 improved bone density parameters in both tibia and femur cancellous bone, primarily in OVX mice. In contrast, to the effects on cancellous bone, cortical bone parameters were largely unaffected by OVX or 17α-E2. In the non-weight bearing lumbar vertebrae, OVX reduced trabecular thickness but not spacing, while 17α-E2 increased trabecular thickness and reduced spacing. Despite this, 17α-E2 did improve bone volume/tissue volume in lumbar vertebrae. Overall, we found that 17α-E2 prevented OVX-induced increases in adiposity and changes in bone mass and architecture, with minimal effects in SHAM-operated mice. We also observed that 17α-E2 rescued uterine tissue mass and lining morphology to control levels without inducing hypertrophy, suggesting that 17α-E2 could be considered as an adjunct to traditional hormone replacement therapies.