High-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity is associated not only with metabolic dysregulation, e.g., impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, but also with neurological dysfunction manifested with aberrant behavior and/or neurotransmitter imbalance. Most studies have examined HFD's effects predominantly in male subjects, either in the periphery or on the brain, in isolation and after a finite feeding period. In this study, we evaluated the time-course of selected metabolic, behavioral, and neurochemical effects of HFD intake in parallel and at multiple time points in female (C57BL/6) mice. Peripheral effects were evaluated at three feeding intervals (short: 5–6 weeks, long: 20–22 weeks, and prolonged: 33–36 weeks). Central effects were evaluated only after long and prolonged feeding durations; we have previously reported those effects after the short (5–6 weeks) feeding duration) . Ongoing HFD feeding resulted in an obese phenotype characterized by increased visceral adiposity and, after prolonged HFD intake, an increase in liver and kidney weights. Peripherally, 5 weeks of HFD intake was sufficient to impair glucose tolerance significantly, with the deleterious effects of HFD being greater with prolonged intake. Similarly, 5 weeks of HFD consumption was sufficient to impair insulin sensitivity. However, sensitivity to insulin after prolonged HFD intake was not different between control, low-fat diet (LFD) and HFD-fed mice, most likely due to age-dependent decrease in insulin sensitivity in the LFD-fed mice. HFD intake also induced bi-phasic hepatic inflammation and it increased gut permeability. Behaviorally, prolonged intake of HFD caused mice to be hypoactive and bury fewer marbles in a marble burying task; the latter was associated with significantly impaired hippocampal serotonin homeostasis. Cognitive (short-term recognition memory) function of mice was unaffected by chronic HFD feeding. Considering our prior findings of short-term (5–6 weeks) HFD-induced central (hyperactivity/anxiety and altered ventral hippocampal neurochemistry) effects and our current results, it seems that in female mice some metabolic/inflammatory dysregulations caused by HFD, such as gut permeability, appear early and persist, whereas others, such as glucose intolerance, are exaggerated with continuous HFD feeding; behaviorally, prolonged HFD consumption mainly affects locomotor activity and anxiety-like responses, likely due to the advanced obesity phenotype; neurochemically, the serotonergic system appears to be most sensitive to continued HFD feeding.