volume 35, issue 12, P1246-1255 2011
DOI: 10.1016/j.dci.2011.03.008
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Abstract: In this review, we focus on four different activation states of fish macrophages. In vitro, stimulation with microbial ligands induces the development of innate activated macrophages whereas classically activated macrophages can be induced by stimulation with LPS in combination with (recombinant) IFNγ. Both types of macrophages show elevated phagocytic activity, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and radical production. Alternatively activated macrophages require the cytokines IL-4/IL-13 for inducti…

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