volume 56, issue 3, P382-392 1988
DOI: 10.1037/0022-006x.56.3.382
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Robert M. Kaplan

Abstract: Early mortality and reduced quality of life in the years prior to death are the most important health outcomes associated with cardiovascular disease. Other measures of cardiovascular status, including blood pressure, ejection fraction, and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities, are only of interest because of their known association with poor health outcomes. Quality of life measures have gained increasing attention as outcome variables in studies of cardiovascular disease. This article reviews several curren…

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