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“…Plasma catecholamines also increase during the stress reaction (3,21). Figure 1 shows that 48 h after surgery, the plasma corticosterone level of rats was 26.1 ± 2.7 µg/dl.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
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“…Plasma catecholamines also increase during the stress reaction (3,21). Figure 1 shows that 48 h after surgery, the plasma corticosterone level of rats was 26.1 ± 2.7 µg/dl.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…However, when rats received footshocks, plasma corticosterone levels increased, as expected, and repetition of the stressor stimulus caused a more pronounced response, indicating that animals had not adapted to the stressor. Many authors have shown that plasma corticosterone responses are reduced in rats following repeated presentation of noise (21,22), handling (23), novelty (24,25) or restraint (26), whereas with the use of relative intense stressors such as footshock (27), cold exposure (27), forced running (27,28) or a combina- (29), no such adaptation was detected. Our stressed rat model presented higher plasma corticosterone levels before the second and third footshock sessions compared to control rats, indicating that with repetition of the stressful stimulus some anticipation rather than adaptation to the stressor may occur.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…The increase in TRAP observed in the present study is probably enough to keep the steadystate ROS concentration under control, since no change in TBARS was observed during a short period of time (15 days). On the other hand, when exposed for longer periods of time (40 days of restraint), the animals possibly adapt to this stressor, as demonstrated by lower levels of corticosterone when compared to the initial days of treatment (32,35). The possible adaptation to a repeated stressor, with progressively smaller responses to it, may help to explain why variable chronic stress, but not repeated-restraint stress, induces lipoperoxidation after 40 days of treatment.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…For instance, exposure to unfamiliar stimuli, such as water-immersion, handling, or placement into a new cage, results in increased activation of the sympatheticadrenal system that is reflected by elevated concentrations of epinephrine in plasma (De Boer et al 1990). Research also indicates that these exaggerated hormonal responses to novelty are suppressed by familiarizing subjects to a novel context by either repetitive or prolonged exposure to arousing stimuli (De Boer et al 1988;Konarska et al 1989Konarska et al , 1990. Based on these physiological findings, the present studies were conducted to examine the mechanism by which novelty produced physiological arousal impacts memory.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning