2021
DOI: 10.1109/access.2021.3104617
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Grid Forming Inverter Modeling, Control, and Applications

Abstract: This paper surveys current literature on modeling methods, control techniques, protection schemes, applications, and real-world implementations pertaining to grid forming inverters (GFMIs). Electric power systems are increasingly being augmented with inverter-based resources (IBRs). While having a growing share of IBRs, conventional synchronous generator-based voltage and frequency control mechanisms are still prevalent in the power industry. Therefore, IBRs are experiencing a growing demand for mimicking the … Show more

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Cited by 176 publications
(44 citation statements)
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“…In conventional power generation, loads are shared proportional to SGs ratings, and the real power injected to the grid varies according to grid frequency. This control loop is called as 'frequency droop' [8]. A prime mover maintains the rotor speed of the synchronous generator.…”
Section: ) Active Power Loopmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…In conventional power generation, loads are shared proportional to SGs ratings, and the real power injected to the grid varies according to grid frequency. This control loop is called as 'frequency droop' [8]. A prime mover maintains the rotor speed of the synchronous generator.…”
Section: ) Active Power Loopmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Droop control grid forming techniqueoriginates from the governor action and enables sharing the power as per VSCs rating when operating in parallel. The stability issues are arise in droop control when high droop gain is used [8]. Another grid forming approach is direct power control (DPC), in which output voltage gives the phase angle reference and that is why it is categorized in a grid forming converter [9]- [10].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…However, the development and analysis of fast inner-loop controllers are challenging, both to simulate and explore experimentally. Simulation requires faster time steps and more complex functionalities to represent the non-linear dynamics of VRE sources and the interfacing inverters [2,4,42]. For example, the phase-locked loop (PLL) controllers of VRE inverters must be accurately and completely modelled to foresee whether a grid interfacing with the controllers, containing few synchronous generators and thus with low system strength, will survive large disturbances and, if not, when the grid becomes unstable [42].…”
Section: Modeling and Analysismentioning
confidence: 99%
“…To evaluate various GFM methods, [6] compared different methods including machine emulation‐based method [7–9], droop‐based control [10–13], power synchronization control [14], and matching control [3, 15]. Other GFM methods such as VOC [16], H/H2$H_{\infty }/H_2$‐ based control [17, 18], ViSync[19] and frequency‐shaping approach [20] were discussed in [21]. It is shown that while using machine emulation‐based approaches can enable GFM operation, the exact replication of SGs requires a complicated model with high mathematical operations.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%