2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2010.00308.x View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Animal studies suggest that the gut-brain peptide ghrelin plays an important role in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence (AD). Human studies show an effect of alcohol on ghrelin levels and a correlation between ghrelin levels and alcohol craving in alcoholics. This investigation consisted of two studies. Study 1 was a 12-week study with alcohol-dependent subjects, where plasma ghrelin determinations were assessed four times (T0-T3) and related to alcohol intake and craving [Penn Alcohol Craving Score (PACS)… Show more

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“…Indeed, high plasma levels of ghrelin have been observed in abstinent alcoholics (Kim et al., 2005; Kraus et al., 2005) and have been associated with high craving scores in alcoholics (Addolorato et al., 2006; Hillemacher et al., 2007; Koopmann et al., 2012; Leggio et al., 2012). In addition, a recent longitudinal study showed that ghrelin levels increase when alcoholics abstain, while ghrelin levels decrease when alcoholics relapse in drinking (Leggio et al., 2012). A speculative explanation may be that the elevated peripheral ghrelin levels observed in craving alcoholics indirectly reflect the central ghrelin levels of those patients.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…However, this needs to be further elucidated. The findings that the cholinergic–dopaminergic reward link is activated by pharmacological‐induced hyperghrelinemia (Jerlhag, 2008; Jerlhag et al., 2012) and that elevated ghrelin levels associated with craving (Addolorato et al., 2006; Koopmann et al., 2012; Leggio et al., 2012), may imply that high plasma levels of ghrelin may be needed for reward interactions. Supportively, animal studies show that hyperghrelinemia is associated with cocaine seeking and that peripheral ghrelin administration augments the cocaine‐induced conditioned place preference and locomotor stimulation (Clifford et al., 2012; Davis et al., 2007; Tessari et al., 2007; Wellman et al., 2005, 2012).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Genetic studies have shown an association between the singlenucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2232165 of the GHSR gene and heavy alcohol use (Landgren et al, 2008). Elevated plasma ghrelin levels have been reported in alcoholic patients (Kim et al, 2005;Kraus et al, 2005;Wurst et al, 2007), and among alcoholics, there is a strong positive correlation between ghrelin levels and craving (Addolorato et al, 2006;Leggio et al, 2012). However, other investigators found reduced ghrelin levels in alcoholics (Addolorato et al, 2006;Badaoui et al, 2008).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…One could thus expect that genetic variations in this system would affect alcohol-related behaviors, which has been reported in some studies (Landgren et al, 2008(Landgren et al, , 2010(Landgren et al, , 2012Leggio et al, 2012;Suchankova et al, 2016). Previous work on the Leu72Met polymorphism and AUD has, however, generated mixed results (Leggio et al, 2012;Suchankova et al, 2016), possibly due to the large differences in sample sizes (i.e., much smaller in Leggio et al, 2012). In line with our findings the 72Leu allele was present in a haplotype associated with self-reported paternal alcohol dependence as well as withdrawal in severely alcohol dependent women (Landgren et al, 2010).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that not only stimulates food intake (Kojima and Kangawa, 2005) but has also been implicated in reward processes leading to alcohol consumption (Addolorato et al, 2006;Jerlhag et al, 2009;Leggio et al, 2012Leggio et al, , 2014Suchankova et al, 2013;Gomez et al, 2015;Stevenson et al, 2016). Located on chromosome 3, the prepro-ghrelin gene (GHRL) has several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); one has been frequently reported in the literature -the Leu72Met (rs696217).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning