2017
DOI: 10.1515/cerce-2017-0018 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Plants disease epidemiology provides us with some information about the spread of diseases in different regions with various climates and helps us conduct suitable managing operations and predictions about the spread of disease to other areas. Geographic Information System (GIS) has been widely used as an important tool in epidemiological studies. Wetwood disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases on elm trees found in the Northwest of Iran. The disease has spread in different regions of Tabriz (l… Show more

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“…Proper identification of causative agents, their pathogenic properties and antagonistic relationships between the components provides a solid foundation for developing effective biochemical control methods of bacterial wetwood. More research is needed to assess the epiphytotic spread of bacterial wetwood across different birch biomes and its variability on the landscape scale (Alizadeh et al 2017). The methods of early detection, including modern non-invasive techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and electrical resistance, should be further investigated (Goh et al 2017).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
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“…Proper identification of causative agents, their pathogenic properties and antagonistic relationships between the components provides a solid foundation for developing effective biochemical control methods of bacterial wetwood. More research is needed to assess the epiphytotic spread of bacterial wetwood across different birch biomes and its variability on the landscape scale (Alizadeh et al 2017). The methods of early detection, including modern non-invasive techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and electrical resistance, should be further investigated (Goh et al 2017).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…The bark of affected trees exfoliates, exposing the sapwood. Chronic pathogenesis is accompanied by dieback of the upper part of the plant and eventual death of the weakened tree (Alizadeh 2017;Hanson 2018;Jacobi 2009) (Fig. 1).…”
Section: Symptomatologymentioning
“…Its typical characteristics are higher water content than healthy heartwood, a darker tissue color, and a stench of fatty acids. Wetwood is a common tree disease that occurs in coniferous and broad-leaved trees ( Alizadeh et al, 2017a , b ; Basavand et al, 2021 ; Martin et al, 2021 ). The wetwood disease has been studied since the 20th century in species such as white fir ( Wilcox and Pong, 1971 ; Wilcox and Oldham, 1972 ), Abies lasiocarpa [Hook] Nutt ( Zhang et al, 2006 ), Pinus sylveatris L. ( Kovaleva et al, 2015 ), Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…I-69/55 ( Yu et al, 2019 ), Betula pendula roth ( Goychuk et al, 2020 ), Ulmus spp. L. ( Alizadeh et al, 2017a , b ), Morus ( Basavand et al, 2021 ), Casuarina equisetifolia ( Ayin et al, 2019 ), Gmelina arboreaI ( Moya et al, 2009 ), and other broad-leaved tree species. Many things have been investigated to identify the causes for development of wetwood, such as genetic variability, bacterial and fungal communities, wood physicochemical properties, and wood processing and utilization ( Schroeder and Kozlik, 1972 ; Schink et al, 1981a ; Xu et al, 2001 ; Jeremic et al, 2004 ; Zhang et al, 2005 ).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Such information can assist in the understanding of infection processes as well as the prediction (and therefore the control) of further European canker spread. This knowledge can then be applied to avoid unnecessary costs of inappropriate management practices, for example by developing optimal monitoring strategies (Blumenthal et al 2001;, Alizadeh et al 2017Walter et al 2017). Disease clustering can happen for many reasons such as the mechanism of disease spread, the occurrence of disease vectors in a certain location and the clustering of risk factors (Pfeiffer et al 2008).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning