1997
DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0185(199701)247:1<1::aid-ar1>3.0.co;2-3
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Abstract: Background For understanding the relationship between skeletal muscle architecture and muscle function in vivo, the development of accurate geometric models relating muscle length to joint angles is crucial. Therefore, a geometric model of the calf of mammals was developed to predict the length of the gastrocnemius muscle‐tendon complex from knee and ankle angles. Methods The model requires three skeletal length measurements (radius of femoral condyle, ankle lever, and tibia length) to predict muscle‐tendon le… Show more

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Cited by 20 publications
(21 citation statements)
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References 19 publications
(34 reference statements)
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“…The force-length characteristics in situ and morphological data of isolated rat GM (Zuurbier & Huijing, 1993) and GM length changes measured in our study reveal that the GM has the capability of generating high forces. This observation is in agreement with predictions for force capabilities of GM in vivo by Ettema (1997) as GM had muscle lengths in vivo close to its optimum muscle length in situ. Interestingly, the rat tibialis anterior muscle (dorsiflexor) also generates nearly maximum force values over the normal range of motion (Hawkins & Bey, 1997), but cat plantar flexor muscles seem to operate on the ascending and descending limbs (Herzog et al 1992).…”
Section: Multipositional Isometric Contractionssupporting
confidence: 88%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…The force-length characteristics in situ and morphological data of isolated rat GM (Zuurbier & Huijing, 1993) and GM length changes measured in our study reveal that the GM has the capability of generating high forces. This observation is in agreement with predictions for force capabilities of GM in vivo by Ettema (1997) as GM had muscle lengths in vivo close to its optimum muscle length in situ. Interestingly, the rat tibialis anterior muscle (dorsiflexor) also generates nearly maximum force values over the normal range of motion (Hawkins & Bey, 1997), but cat plantar flexor muscles seem to operate on the ascending and descending limbs (Herzog et al 1992).…”
Section: Multipositional Isometric Contractionssupporting
confidence: 88%
“…Interestingly, the rat tibialis anterior muscle (dorsiflexor) also generates nearly maximum force values over the normal range of motion (Hawkins & Bey, 1997), but cat plantar flexor muscles seem to operate on the ascending and descending limbs (Herzog et al 1992). Ettema (1997) used a geometrical model to predict the length of the GM from knee and ankle angles and found that GM in vivo produces more than 80% of its optimum force with the knee at 1·57 rad and the ankle between 0·79 and 2·01 rad -the range used in this study. If the characteristics of isolated GM in situ resemble those of isolated GL in situ and both muscles show similar length changes in vivo, the isometric force-position relationship of ankle plantar flexor muscles in intact rats of the present study is consistent with the force-length data of the isolated GM in situ (i.e.…”
Section: Multipositional Isometric Contractionsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The simulation prescribed experimental joint angles measured from a subject walking on a treadmill. The subject was a healthy male (height 1.83 m, mass 65.9 kg) who walked continuously at a self-selected speed of 1.36 m s 21 . The positions of 41 markers [40] were measured using a six-camera motion capture system (Motion Analysis Corporation, Santa Rosa, CA, USA).…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…large ratio of tendon slack length to optimal muscle fibre length [5,20]). It is important to note that without measurements of sarcomere length, previous studies of lower limb muscles could only roughly approximate fibre operating lengths [21].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Muscle-tendon unit length MTU lengths of LG muscle were estimated using the ankle-knee geometric model of the rat described by Ettema (1997). Inputs for the model were the low-pass filtered (third-order, zero-lag Butterworth, cut-off 20 Hz) ankle-knee joint angles and the tibia lengths (see Table 1).…”
Section: Temporal Stride Characteristics and Joint Anglesmentioning
confidence: 99%