volume 41, issue 3, P656-664 2007
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2006.09.024
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Natalie L. Cápiro, Brent P. Stafford, William G. Rixey, Philip B. Bedient, Pedro J.J. Alvarez

Abstract: Fuel-grade ethanol (76L of E95, 95%v/v ethanol, 5%v/v hydrocarbon mixture as a denaturant) was released at the water table in an 8150-L continuous-flow tank packed with fine-grain masonry sand. Ethanol, which is buoyant and hygroscopic, quickly migrated upwards and spread laterally in the capillary zone. Horizontal migration of ethanol occurred through a shallow thin layer with minimal vertical dispersion, and was one order of magnitude slower than the preceding bromide tracer. Dyes, one hydrophobic (Sudan-IV)…

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