2005
DOI: 10.1590/s0004-282x2005000200004 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: BACKGROND: Blepharospasm (BS) is a form of central focal dystonia recently associated with psychiatric disorders, particularly obsessive and compulsive symptoms. Hemifacial spasm (HFS) represents a focal myoclonus with peripheral origin in the facial nerve. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of obsessive and compulsive symptoms in patients with BS in comparison with patients with HFS. METHODS: 30 patients from each group (BS and HFS) followed by the botulinum toxin clinic at the HC-UFPR were evaluated using… Show more

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“…Despite improvement of dystonic manifestations due to the treatment, patients with BSP show higher levels of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and, in general, a worse quality of life, than patients with HFS ( Scheidt et al, 1996 ; Broocks et al, 1998 ; Tucha et al, 2001 ; Tan et al, 2005 , 2006 ; Hall et al, 2006 ; Barahona-Corrêa et al, 2011 ; Fontenelle et al, 2011 ; Setthawatcharawanich et al, 2011 ; Lehn et al, 2014 ). Nonetheless, few authors do not report differences in obsessive-compulsive symptoms between the two diseases ( Hall et al, 2005 ; Munhoz et al, 2005 ; Fontenelle et al, 2011 ). The findings of worse psychological symptoms in BSP than HFS might be related to the presence of more severe visual impairment and ophthalmological pain ( Martino et al, 2005 ) with consequences on everyday life ( Reimer et al, 2005 ; Hall et al, 2006 ).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
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“…Despite improvement of dystonic manifestations due to the treatment, patients with BSP show higher levels of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and, in general, a worse quality of life, than patients with HFS ( Scheidt et al, 1996 ; Broocks et al, 1998 ; Tucha et al, 2001 ; Tan et al, 2005 , 2006 ; Hall et al, 2006 ; Barahona-Corrêa et al, 2011 ; Fontenelle et al, 2011 ; Setthawatcharawanich et al, 2011 ; Lehn et al, 2014 ). Nonetheless, few authors do not report differences in obsessive-compulsive symptoms between the two diseases ( Hall et al, 2005 ; Munhoz et al, 2005 ; Fontenelle et al, 2011 ). The findings of worse psychological symptoms in BSP than HFS might be related to the presence of more severe visual impairment and ophthalmological pain ( Martino et al, 2005 ) with consequences on everyday life ( Reimer et al, 2005 ; Hall et al, 2006 ).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…The findings of worse psychological symptoms in BSP than HFS might be related to the presence of more severe visual impairment and ophthalmological pain ( Martino et al, 2005 ) with consequences on everyday life ( Reimer et al, 2005 ; Hall et al, 2006 ). However, it might also be ascribed to dysfunction of the cortico-subcortical circuits (i.e., cortico-striatal circuitry comprising fronto-orbital and cingulate structures) that are typically involved in mood disorders ( Broocks et al, 1998 ; Munhoz et al, 2005 ; Reimer et al, 2005 ; Barahona-Corrêa et al, 2011 ; Conte et al, 2016 ). Studies investigating psychological variables in patients with ST, undergoing BoNTA treatment, report that the most common psychological symptoms manifested by these patients are anxiety ( Wenzel et al, 1998 ; Gündel et al, 2003 ), depression ( Jahanshahi and Marsden, 1988 ; Pekmezovic et al, 2009 ; Fabbrini et al, 2010 ), and social embarrassment accompanied by social avoidance ( Jahanshahi, 1991 ; Comella and Bhatia, 2015 ).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…6 The mean annual incidence is 0.81 per 100,000 women and 0.74 per 100,000 men. Because of this low incidence, there are few studies comparing the efficacy of different therapies 7 .…”
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“…Most case‐control studies failed to use specific rating scales for obsessive‐compulsive symptoms (OCS) or relied on small heterogeneous samples, including focal, generalized, and secondary dystonia 18. Two of five studies that used controls with peripheral neurological disorders (to control for the effects of functional impairment on psychopathology) found more intense OCS in PFD 14, 15, 19–21. Three of the studies that used healthy controls also found higher OCS scores in PFD 22–24.…”
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