Abstract.Emissions of gases and particulates in urban areas are associated with a mixture of various sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Understanding and quantifying these emissions is necessary in studies of climate change, local air pollution issues and weather modification. Studies have highlighted that the transport sector is key to closing the world's emissions gap.
15Vehicles contribute substantially with the emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC), particulate matter (PM), methane (CH 4 ), hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O).Several studies show that vehicle emission inventories are an important approach to providing a baseline estimate of on-road emissions in several scales, mainly in urban areas. This approach is essential to areas with incomplete or non-existent monitoring networks as well as for air quality models. Conversely, the direct downscale of global emission inventories in chemical transport 20and air quality models may not be able to reproduce the observed evolution of atmospheric pollution processes at finer spatial scales. To address this caveat, we developed a bottom-up vehicular emission inventory along the 258 main traffic routes from Manaus, based on local vehicle fleet data and emission factors (EFs). The results show that the light vehicles are responsible for the largest fraction of the pollutants, contributing 2.6, 0.87, 0.32, 0.03, 456 and 0.8 ton/h of CO, NO x , CH 4 , PM, CO 2 and NMHC, respectively. Including the emissions of motorcycles, buses and trucks, our total estimation of the emissions is 4.1, 1.0 , 25 0.37, 0.07, 63.5 and 2.56 ton/h, respectively. We also noted that light vehicles accounted for about 62.8%, 84.7%, 87.9%, 45.1%, 71.8%, and 33.9% and motorcycles in the order of 32.3 %, 6.5 %, 12.1 %, 6.2 %, 14.8 %, 8.7 %, respectively. Nevertheless, we can highlight the bus emissions which are around 35.7% and 45.3 % for NMHC and PM. Our results indicate a better distribution over the domain reflecting the influences of standard behavior of traffic distribution per vehicle category. Finally, this inventory provides more detailed information to improving the current understanding of how vehicle emissions contribute to the ambient 30 pollutant concentrations in Manaus and their impacts on regional climate changes. This work will also contribute to improved air quality numerical simulations, provide more accurate scenarios for policymakers and regulatory agencies to develop strategies for controlling the vehicular emissions, and, consequently, mitigate associated impacts on local and regional scales of the Amazon ecosystems.
35Key words: Vehicle emission inventories, bottom-up approach, urban air pollution, Amazon forest Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https://doi