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(31 citation statements)

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“…Additionally, the energy dissipation rate within a certain frequency band can also be calculated from the turbulent energy spectrum for a specific flow$$\overline{{\epsilon}^{\prime}}=15\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\upsilon \underset{{f}_{1}}{\overset{{f}_{2}}{false\int}}{\left(\frac{2\pi}{\stackrel{false\xaf}{u}}\right)}^{2}\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{f}^{2}E\left(f\right)df$$ where f is frequency and $E\left(f\right)$ is turbulent energy density. This equation is introduced here because it is later used to adjust the Kolmogorov eddy size and frequency for the data of Liu et al…”

confidence: 99%

“…Additionally, the energy dissipation rate within a certain frequency band can also be calculated from the turbulent energy spectrum for a specific flow$$\overline{{\epsilon}^{\prime}}=15\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\upsilon \underset{{f}_{1}}{\overset{{f}_{2}}{false\int}}{\left(\frac{2\pi}{\stackrel{false\xaf}{u}}\right)}^{2}\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{f}^{2}E\left(f\right)df$$ where f is frequency and $E\left(f\right)$ is turbulent energy density. This equation is introduced here because it is later used to adjust the Kolmogorov eddy size and frequency for the data of Liu et al…”

confidence: 99%

“…Additionally, the energy dissipation rate within a certain frequency band can also be calculated from the turbulent energy spectrum for a specific flow 29,30 where f is frequency and E (f ) is turbulent energy density. This equation is introduced here because it is later used to adjust the Kolmogorov eddy size and frequency for the data of Liu et al 31 The energy spectrum used in this work comes from measurements by Liu et al 31 for turbulent flow downstream of a prosthetic heart valve.…”

confidence: 99%

“…A more realistic alternative, is to consider that on the bulk side at the interface the turbulence is completely developed and that the velocity profile takes the fully-turbulent self-similar form [19]:…”

confidence: 99%

“…The fluctuation velocity u' is assumed to follow a Gaussian probability distribution with zero mean [74,75].…”

confidence: 99%