E26 transformation-specific (ETS) variant 4 (ETV4) is an important transcription factor that belongs to the ETS transcription factor family and is essential for much cellular physiology. Recent evidence has revealed that ETV4 is aberrantly expressed in many types of tumors, and its overexpression is related to poor prognosis of cancer patients. Additionally, increasing studies have identified that ETV4 promotes cancer growth, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. Mechanistically, the level of ETV4 is regulated by some post-translation modulations in a broad spectrum of cancers. However, little progress has been made to comprehensively summarize the critical roles of ETV4 in different human cancers. Hence, this review mainly focuses on the physiological functions of ETV4 in various human tumors. In addition, the molecular mechanisms of ETV4-mediated cancer progression were elucidated, including how ETV4 modulates its downstream signaling pathways and how ETV4 is regulated by some factors. On this basis, the present review may provide a valuable therapeutics strategy for future cancer treatment by targeting ETV4-related pathways.