Abstract:The Scandinavian welfare states are mature in the sense of having a high level of standards for public provisions of welfare services as well as a high replacement level for income transfers, especially for low income groups. In this welfare model, individuals have basic rights to welfare services and social transfers independently of their ability to pay, their labour market history etc. The financial viability of the model relies on a high tax burden and a high level of labour force participation for males a… Show more
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