2008
DOI: 10.1080/10915810802548359 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Parabens is the name given to a group of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) esters used in over 22,000 cosmetics as preservatives at concentrations up to 0.8% (mixtures of parabens) or up to 0.4% (single paraben). The group includes Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben. Industry estimates of the daily use of cosmetic products that may contain parabens were 17.76 g for adults and 378 mg for infants. Parabens in cosmetic formulations applied to … Show more

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“…Fish and vegetable intake were identified as potential emerging dietary sources OXBE, TCS, and parabens. Some parabens are permitted to be applied on food in the European Union, whereas besides such uses, parabens, along with OXBE and TCS, are widely used in cosmetics, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals as antimicrobial preservatives (Andersen 2008; Dann and Hontela 2011; DiNardo and Downs 2018; EFSA 2004; Sakhi et al. 2018).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
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“…Fish and vegetable intake were identified as potential emerging dietary sources OXBE, TCS, and parabens. Some parabens are permitted to be applied on food in the European Union, whereas besides such uses, parabens, along with OXBE and TCS, are widely used in cosmetics, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals as antimicrobial preservatives (Andersen 2008; Dann and Hontela 2011; DiNardo and Downs 2018; EFSA 2004; Sakhi et al. 2018).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…2016 ; INERIS 2014 ; NTP 2008 ). Parabens are used as preservatives in cosmetics, food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals; benzophenone-3, an ultraviolet-filter, is used in plastics and cosmetics; triclosan is used for its antibacterial properties in personal care products, clothing, or kitchenware ( Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel 2008 ; Krause et al. 2012 ; NLM 2016 ); 2,4-dichlorophenol is used in the production of certain pesticides; and 2,5-dichlorophenol is a major metabolite of 1,4-dichlorobenzene, which is used in moth balls and room deodorizers ( Crinnion 2010 ; HSDB 2016 ).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…According to Meng et al (2020), the number of oocytes with apoptosis increased after IBP exposure; however, in another study, the toxic potential of PBs in hepatocytes was evaluated, and they determined that cytotoxicity is proportional to the size of PBs (Nakagawa & Moldeus, 1998). Therefore, the longer the carbon chain of PBs, the more their effect is exacerbated (Andersen, 2008;Soni et al, 2005).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning