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“…From the studies reviewed (Carpenter et al 1997;Gray et al 1998;Fylkesnes, Ndhlovu, Kasumba, Musonda, and Sichone 1998), the authors estimate a 25-40% loss in fertility among infected women and a reduction of approximately 0.4% in the total fertility rate with each percentage point increase in female HIV prevalence figures. Similar results were found by other researchers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Ryder et al 1991), in Uganda (Sewankamboo et al 1995) and in Rwanda (Allen et al 1993). In addition, they find that the fertility of HIV-positive women varies with age: young HIV-positive women do not seem to experience any loss in fertility and the reduction in cumulated fertility becomes more severe as women age.…”
Section: What Do We Know About the Association Between Hiv/aids And Csupporting
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“…From the studies reviewed (Carpenter et al 1997;Gray et al 1998;Fylkesnes, Ndhlovu, Kasumba, Musonda, and Sichone 1998), the authors estimate a 25-40% loss in fertility among infected women and a reduction of approximately 0.4% in the total fertility rate with each percentage point increase in female HIV prevalence figures. Similar results were found by other researchers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Ryder et al 1991), in Uganda (Sewankamboo et al 1995) and in Rwanda (Allen et al 1993). In addition, they find that the fertility of HIV-positive women varies with age: young HIV-positive women do not seem to experience any loss in fertility and the reduction in cumulated fertility becomes more severe as women age.…”
Section: What Do We Know About the Association Between Hiv/aids And Csupporting
“…We analyze data from recent nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 10 sub-Saharan African countries with generalized AIDS epidemics. Although some studies have also examined fertility desires and/or contraceptive behavior, many have been clinic-based studies focusing on people who are HIV-positive and definitely know their status, often without a comparison to HIV-negative adults (Cooper et al, 2009;Cooper, Harries, Myer, Orner, & Bracken, 2007;Mitchell & Stephens, 2004;Myer, Morroni, & Rebe, 2007;Nebié et al, 2001;Ryder et al, 1991). A strength of some of these studies is that they are longitudinal and make comparisons of fertility preferences or contraceptive behavior over time as individuals learn of their HIV-positive status and subsequently change their fertility desires or contraceptive or sexual behaviors (Nebié et al, 2001;Ryder et al, 1991).…”
mentioning
“…Several investigations conducted in sub-Saharan Africa have documented reduced fertility among HIV-positive women [47,48], though these studies were conducted before HAART was widely available. The impairment in fertility does not occur during early HIV infection [49] but is marked with disease progression, and reduced fertility has been documented with onset of AIDS in both males and females [50]. Though the mechanisms through which fertility impairment in advanced HIV infection are not fully understood, higher viral load and decreased CD4 counts with advanced HIV disease are possible pathophysiological mechanisms [51].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning