Abstract:The discovery of SN 2018gep (ZTF 18abukavn) challenged our understanding of the late-phase evolution of massive stars and their supernovae (SNe). The fast rise in luminosity of this SN (spectroscopically classified as a broad-lined Type Ic SN) indicates that the ejecta interacts with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), while an additional energy source such as 56 Ni decay is required to explain the late-time light curve. These features hint at the explosion of a massive star with pre-SN mass loss. In this wor… Show more
“…As shown in Leung et al ( , 2021, an ejected mass of ∼10 −2 -10 −1 M e with a radius of 10 2 -10 4 R e can power luminous SNe via CSM interaction, which explains some rapidly brightening transients with a rise time of ∼10 days and a peak luminosity ∼10 44 erg s −1 . The expected M CSM is much smaller than the required values for most of our models, so we expect rapidly rising H-poor transients to be uncommon (if the CSM is generated by wave heating).…”
Section: Csm Dep Ej Depmentioning
“…Additionally, the circumstellar medium can greatly affect the light curve of the subsequent supernova (Suzuki et al 2019). The outburst mass and energy expected from wave heating are approximately capable of matching some well-observed transients such as SN 2000kf (Ouchi & Maeda 2021) and SN 2018gep (Leung et al 2021).…”
Section: Dynamical Evolution Of Massive Starsmentioning
“…Here we study the hydrodynamical response of the envelope due to wave energy deposition. In Leung et al (2021), we demonstrated that how fast the energy is deposited affects the envelope expansion. When the energy deposition timescale is shorter than the dynamical timescale, the excited envelope develops a shock and ejects mass in the form of a pulse.…”
Section: Connection To Rapid Transientsmentioning
“…In Leung et al (2021) we used a parameterized wave model to study how the stellar envelope of a H-poor star responds to the wave energy deposition. Depending on the energy deposition and duration, we estimated that the typical mass loss can reach ∼10 −5 -10 −2 M e .…”
Section: Motivation and Outlinementioning
“…This corresponds approximately to the time before explosion of any pre-supernova mass ejection that occurs. However, whether or not the star ejects mass must be determined by hydrodynamic simulations of the envelope's response to wave heating (e.g., Section 4 in this article and Leung et al 2021).…”
Section: Distribution Of Deposition Timescalementioning
The discovery of rapidly rising and fading supernovae powered by circumstellar interaction has suggested the pre-supernova mass eruption phase as a critical phenomenon in massive star evolution. It is important to understand the mass and radial extent of the circumstellar medium (CSM) from theoretically predicted mass ejection mechanisms. In this work, we study the wave heating process in massive hydrogen-poor stars, running a suite of stellar models in order to predict the wave energy and pre-explosion timescale of surface energy deposition. We survey stellar models with main-sequence progenitor masses from 20–70 M
⊙ and metallicity from 0.002–0.02. Most of these models predict that less than ∼1047 erg is deposited in the envelope, with the majority of the energy deposited in the last week of stellar evolution. This translates to CSM masses less than ∼10−2
⊙ that extend to less than ∼1014 cm, too small to greatly impact the light curves or spectra of the subsequent supernovae, except perhaps during the shock breakout phase. However, a few models predict somewhat higher wave energy fluxes, for which we perform hydrodynamical simulations of the mass ejection process. Radiative transfer simulations of the subsequent supernovae predict a bright but brief shock-cooling phase that could be detected in some Type Ib/c supernovae if they are discovered within a couple days of explosion.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.