Industrial activities have produced profound changes in the natural environment, including the mass removal of trees, fragmentation of habitats, and creation of larval mosquito breeding sites, that have allowed the vectors of disease pathogens to thrive. We conducted a review of the literature to assess the impact of industrial activities on vector-borne disease transmission. Our study shows that industrial activities may be coupled with significant changes to human demographics that can potentially increase contact between pathogens, vectors and hosts, and produce a shift of parasites and susceptible populations between low and high disease endemic areas. Indeed, where vector-borne diseases and industrial activities intersect, large numbers of potentially immunologically naïve people may be exposed to infection and lack the knowledge and means to protect themselves from infection. Such areas are typically associated with inadequate access to quality health care, thus allowing industrial development and production sites to become important foci of transmission. The altered local vector ecologies, and the changes in disease dynamics that changes affect, create challenges for under-resourced health care and vector-control systems.