Inverted organic light-emitting diodes (IOLEDs) have great potential application in flat-panel displays. High energy consumption, efficiency roll-off, and poor electron injection are key issues limiting the use of IOLEDs. Here, we present IOLEDs with extremely low driving voltage, high efficiency and efficiency rollup by employing double electron injection layers (D-EILs) composed of metal sulfide and cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 )-doped 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen). We demonstrate that the use of …
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