Triticum aestivum (wheat), a major staple food grain, is affected by various biotic stresses. Among these, fungal diseases cause about 15–20% of yield loss, worldwide. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of protein-protein interactions between two Puccinia graminis races (Pgt 21-0 and Pgt Ug99) that cause stem (black) rust in wheat. The available molecular techniques to study the host-pathogen interaction mechanisms are expensive and labor-intensive. We implemented two computational approaches (interolog and domain-based) for the prediction of PPIs and performed various functional analysis to determine the significant differences between the two pathogen races. The analysis revealed that T. aestivum-Pgt 21-0 and T. aestivum-Pgt Ug99 interactomes consisted of ∼90M and ∼56M putative PPIs, respectively. In the predicted PPIs, we identified 115 Pgt 21-0 and 34 Pgt Ug99 potential effectors that were highly involved in pathogen virulence and development. Functional enrichment analysis of the host proteins revealed significant GO terms and KEGG pathways such as O-methyltransferase activity (GO:0008171), regulation of signal transduction (GO:0009966), lignin metabolic process (GO:0009808), plastid envelope (GO:0009526), plant-pathogen interaction pathway (ko04626), and MAPK pathway (ko04016) that are actively involved in plant defense and immune signaling against the biotic stresses. Subcellular localization analysis anticipated the host plastid as a primary target for pathogen attack. The highly connected host hubs in the protein interaction network belonged to protein kinase domain including Ser/Thr protein kinase, MAPK, and cyclin-dependent kinase. We also identified 5,577 transcription factors in the interactions, associated with plant defense during biotic stress conditions. Additionally, novel host targets that are resistant to stem rust disease were also identified. The present study elucidates the functional differences between Pgt 21-0 and Pgt Ug99, thus providing the researchers with strain-specific information for further experimental validation of the interactions, and the development of durable, disease-resistant crop lines.