Insects harbor a wide range of microbial symbionts, but their influence on host phenotypes is described in a limited number of biological models. One experimental approach to gain knowledge on the effects of symbionts to their hosts is to create insect lines with and without symbionts and examine their phenotypes. However, the success rate of symbiont elimination and introduction methods is dependent on several parameters that are scarcely tested or described. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harri…
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