Introduction: Prematurity, low birth weight and multiple births are risk factors for structural changes in the brain, as well as deviations in motor, cognitive, social and language development.
Objective: To describe language findings and investigate the presence of neurological changes in preterm twins born at two years of age.
Method: This is a cross-sectional study based on data analysis of the medical records of six pairs of low birth weight preterm twins, of both sexes, at two years of age, attended to at the State Center for the Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons withDisabilities - CEPRED, in Salvador-Bahia-Brazil. To this end, information regarding birth was collected; the clinical history; the imaging exams; and the speech, neurological and interdisciplinary assessments.
Results: preterm twins had atypical language development and neurological changes that may compromise oral language development. From the neurological point of view, abnormalities common to the premature newborn, such as peri-intraventricular hemorrhage, were observed.
Conclusion: Multiple births associated with prematurity and low birth weight may pose risks to the childs language acquisition.