volume 39, issue 8, P1533-1542 2005
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2005.01.028
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Jacek Makinia, Scott A. Wells

Abstract: Tracer studies are widely applied to characterize the hydraulic properties of reactors. In the case of activated sludge reactors, however, tracer test results are difficult to interpret due to internal and returned activated sludge recirculation. Empirical formulae can be considered as an alternative method of estimating the hydraulic conditions within the activated sludge reactor. The aim of this study is to evaluate accuracy of four empirical formulae for the full-scale conditions based on the results of tra…

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