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“…In Table 3, the variance of several images' histograms are listed. In practice, histograms are often normalized by Equation (13).…”

confidence: 99%

“…In Table 3, the variance of several images' histograms are listed. In practice, histograms are often normalized by Equation (13).…”

confidence: 99%

“…The calculation formula of information entropy is as shown in Equation (14). Here, the p(r i ) is identical to Equation (13).…”

confidence: 99%

“…When a random variable's probability distributes equally, the Shannon entropy will be the biggest. If the Shannon entropy of a cipher text image approaches the theoretical peak value, the encryption will be considered as effective [7]. Assume the probability of pixel value is ℎ( ) and the total gray level is ; Shannon entropy of the image is calculated by…”

confidence: 99%