Eumycetoma and chromoblastomycosis are chronic, disfiguring fungal infections of the subcutaneous tissue that rarely resolve spontaneously. Most patients do not achieve sustained long-term benefits from available treatments; therefore, new therapeutic options are needed. We evaluated the efficacy of posaconazole, a new extended-spectrum triazole antifungal agent, in 12 patients with eumycetoma or chromoblastomycosis refractory to existing antifungal therapies. Posaconazole 800 mg/d was given in divided doses for a maximum of 34 months. Complete or partial clinical response was considered a success; stable disease or failure was considered a nonsuccess. All 12 patients had proven infections refractory to standard therapy. Clinical success was reported for five of six patients with eumycetoma and five of six patients with chromoblastomycosis. Two patients were reported to have stable disease. As part of a treatment-use extension protocol, two patients with eumycetoma who initially had successful outcome were successfully retreated with posaconazole after a treatment hiatus of > 10 months. Posaconazole was well tolerated during long-term administration (up to 1015 d). Posaconazole therapy resulted in successful outcome in most patients with eumycetoma or chromoblastomycosis refractory to standard therapies, suggesting that posaconazole may be an important treatment option for these diseases.