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“…For instance, the very low prevalence of the 677 C¡T MTHFR mutation among Blacks may contribute to the lower incidence of neural tube defects in this ethnic group. Furthermore, even though it is known that presently the mortality from cardiovascular disease is higher among African-Americans than among Whites, coronary artery disease prevalence and incidence rates were found to be extremely low for Blacks in Africa or even for African-Americans in the 1960s, revealing the profound effect of environmental factors acting on a population originally at lower risk for cardiovascular disease (19). Cardiovascular diseases are multifactorial entities in which both genetic and environmental risk factors play a role.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
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“…For instance, the very low prevalence of the 677 C¡T MTHFR mutation among Blacks may contribute to the lower incidence of neural tube defects in this ethnic group. Furthermore, even though it is known that presently the mortality from cardiovascular disease is higher among African-Americans than among Whites, coronary artery disease prevalence and incidence rates were found to be extremely low for Blacks in Africa or even for African-Americans in the 1960s, revealing the profound effect of environmental factors acting on a population originally at lower risk for cardiovascular disease (19). Cardiovascular diseases are multifactorial entities in which both genetic and environmental risk factors play a role.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…To our knowledge, the exception is a study performed with an Asian group 6 . There are few if any reports on the relationship of hypertension to changes in cognitive function in African Americans, despite the fact that this population is known to have a higher prevalence of hypertension 11–13 . Because of the higher prevalence of hypertension, we hypothesize that deterioration of cognitive function may be more likely in African Americans, because hypertension is a risk factor for stroke and is implicated in small vessel damage, both of which may have a detrimental effect on cognitive functioning.…”
mentioning
“…In addition, the presence of cardiovascular disease has also been shown to have a negative association on cognitive functioning (e.g., Ylikoski et al, 2000). Heart disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the United States (for a review, see Whitfield, Weidner, Clark, & Anderson, 2002), and recent trends suggest that heart disease is decreasing among White men but may be increasing in African American men (e.g, Hames & Greenlund, 1996). African Americans experience significantly higher age-adjusted mortality rates from and poorer trends for coronary heart disease than Whites (e.g., Barnett & Halverson, 2001).…”
Section: Racial/ethnic Health Disparitiesmentioning