The Solanum glaucophyllum Desf. has been used to treat and prevent diseases in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, plant poisoning causes several bone diseases, among them osteoporosis, which is characterized by osteoblastic hypoplasia. Because the osteoblast is a cell derived from the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow, the hypothesis is that the plant reduces the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of S. glaucophyllum Desf. extract on MSCs cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium. We determined by liquid chromatography that 1 ml of plant extract contained 3.8 μl of 1,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol). Four groups of MSCs cultivated in osteogenic medium were evaluated as follows: (a) treated with 100 μl of extract/L containing 0.4 μg/L of calcitriol; (b) treated with 1 ml of extract/L containing 4 μg/L of calcitriol; (c) treated with 5 ml of extract/L containing 20 μg/L of calcitriol; and (d) a control group without extract. We performed alkaline phosphatase activity assay, analysis of MTT conversion to formazan, and evaluated the percentage of cells, and number and diameter of mineralization nodules. The expression of gene transcripts for osteopontin, bone sialoprotein and BMP‐2 was analysed by RT‐qPCR. After 21 days, there was a significant reduction in MTT conversion to formazan in treated groups, of the cellularity in the group with 5 ml of extract/L, and in the number and size of mineralization nodules in the groups treated with 1 and 5 ml of extract/L. The 5 ml extract/L concentration also reduced transcript expression of osteopontin. It is concluded that S. glaucophyllum Desf. at concentrations of 1 and 5 ml extract/L reduced mineralized matrix synthesis in MSCs cultivated in osteogenic differentiation medium, which suggests that this is one of the mechanisms by which osteoporosis occurs in intoxicated animals.