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“…9 ESR1 has been shown to play a role in behaviour in mice 10 and more recently variants of the ESR1 gene have been implicated in anxiety. 11 As it has previously been suggested that anxiety may accentuate the anorexic effects of estrogen, 12 we postulate that the interaction of stress and estrogen may modulate the HPA axis in the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa. Both ESR1 and 2 are localised to the amygdaloid complex, 13 an area known to be critical in the control of emotions.…”
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“…9 ESR1 has been shown to play a role in behaviour in mice 10 and more recently variants of the ESR1 gene have been implicated in anxiety. 11 As it has previously been suggested that anxiety may accentuate the anorexic effects of estrogen, 12 we postulate that the interaction of stress and estrogen may modulate the HPA axis in the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa. Both ESR1 and 2 are localised to the amygdaloid complex, 13 an area known to be critical in the control of emotions.…”
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“…In much the same way, it is unclear how social stress and diet composition interact to influence the effects of oestradiol upon feeding behaivour. In animal models, stressor exposure consistently suppresses appetite when animals are fed a laboratory diet , and this effect is possibly potentiated by oestradiol in females . However, a body of data is emerging showing that stress exposure significantly increases calorie consumption when highly palatable foods are available, possibly as a result of emotional feeding, and this may increase the risk for obesity .…”
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“…Conversely, in the absence of go nadal steroids the increased ensheathment and decreased innervation of the GnRH neurons may render this neural system more resistant to perturbation and account for the insensitivity of the ovariectomized monkey to the inhibi tory influences of stress. Despite the potentiating influen ces of estradiol on hypoglycemia-induced inhibition of pulse generator activity and other responses to stress [25,39], estradiol was recently shown to reverse the inhibitory effect of the excitatory amino acid agonist NMDA on LH secretion in the rhesus monkey, an effect that may be me diated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) [40,41]. The significance of this apparent dichotomy remains to be determined.…”
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