Heritable bacterial endosymbionts are common in aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and they can influence ecologically important traits of their hosts. It is generally assumed that their persistence in a population is dependent on a balance between the costs and benefits they confer. A good example is Hamiltonella defensa Moran et al., a facultative symbiont that provides a benefit by strongly increasing aphid resistance to parasitoid wasps, but becomes costly to the host in the absence of parasitoids. R…
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