1998
DOI: 10.1080/109158198226684 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Historical observations, first publicized in Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, demonstrated biological effects of persistent, bioaccumulative pollutants on wildlife. These effects included disruption of reproduction and, in some situations, responses mediated through the endocrine system. The substances that caused these effects were mainly highly chlorinated halocarbon compounds, such as DDT (and metabolites), other organochlorine pesticides, polychlori-nated biphenyls, poly chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and po… Show more

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“…Kavlock et al (1996) conducted a review of the data and criteria that are used to support the hypothetical association between a range of human health e!ects and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and concluded that there are no clear relationships between endocrine e!ects in humans and exposures to environmental chemicals. This conclusion has also been voiced in several other reviews of endocrine modulators and potential e!ects on human health (Golden et al, 1998;Waddell, 1998;Solomon, 1998;Daston et al, 1997).…”
Section: Review Of the Scientixc Evidencementioning
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“…Kavlock et al (1996) conducted a review of the data and criteria that are used to support the hypothetical association between a range of human health e!ects and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and concluded that there are no clear relationships between endocrine e!ects in humans and exposures to environmental chemicals. This conclusion has also been voiced in several other reviews of endocrine modulators and potential e!ects on human health (Golden et al, 1998;Waddell, 1998;Solomon, 1998;Daston et al, 1997).…”
Section: Review Of the Scientixc Evidencementioning
“…Several authors have noted that most of the recent suggestions regarding reproductive and developmental e!ects in Great Lakes wildlife are occurring at a time when general contamination has declined signi"cantly from previous decades (Daston et al, 1997;Solomon, 1998). A recent International Joint Commission (IJC) review on environmental monitoring and trends within the Great Lakes' Basin reported that environmental media (i.e., air, water, soil) continue to indicate decreasing levels of persistent toxic substances, and that impacted aquatic and wildlife species and bird populations have recovered signi"cantly in recent years (IJC, 1996;Giesy et al, 1994;Peakall and Fox, 1987).…”
Section: Wildlife Observationsmentioning
“…Once potential for exposure is determined, suitable effects tests should then be selected and the hazard assessed. The types of tests used should address the sensitivity of the faunal populations in the context of diverse exposure scenarios ( Figure 2), adapted from Solomon (12).…”
Section: Reviewmentioning
“…Figure 2. Exposure versus population sensitivity scenarios for persistent or nonpersistent endocrine disruptors, adapted from Solomon (12). (A) Exposure and sensitivity periods overlap with high probability of population effect.…”
Section: Overview Of Conceptual Testing Frameworkmentioning
“…To date, all evidence indicates that endocrine modulation by xenobiotics is primarily an ecotoxicologic issue, mainly involving the reproduction of marine invertebrates and other wildlife populations (3,4,11,13,15,16,(19)(20)(21)23 There are 5 endocrine modulating effects: the regulation of energy availability, the maintenance of the internal environment, development, growth, and reproduction. Interpreting hormonal dysfunction is also very difficult (Figure 1).…”
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