2021
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116310118 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Despite heightened awareness of the detrimental impact of hate speech on social media platforms on affected communities and public discourse, there is little consensus on approaches to mitigate it. While content moderation—either by governments or social media companies—can curb online hostility, such policies may suppress valuable as well as illicit speech and might disperse rather than reduce hate speech. As an alternative strategy, an increasing number of international and nongovernmental organizations (I/N… Show more

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“…( 2) Base feedback on empathy: when pushing back, there are several types of effective counter speech, such as showing empathy, warning the consequence, and incorporating humor (Benesch et al, 2016). Recent experiments show that combining empathy is the most effective among those in reducing hate speech (Hangartner et al, 2021). ( 3) Show how to change: constructive feedback should also suggest better alternative behavior rather than pointing out the wrongs only (Hattie and Timperley, 2007).…”
Section: Improving Receptiveness In Conversationsmentioning
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“…( 2) Base feedback on empathy: when pushing back, there are several types of effective counter speech, such as showing empathy, warning the consequence, and incorporating humor (Benesch et al, 2016). Recent experiments show that combining empathy is the most effective among those in reducing hate speech (Hangartner et al, 2021). ( 3) Show how to change: constructive feedback should also suggest better alternative behavior rather than pointing out the wrongs only (Hattie and Timperley, 2007).…”
Section: Improving Receptiveness In Conversationsmentioning
“…Each user could be described in terms of its social and personality profile [14], including its social vulnerabilities [27]. The former characteristics are linked to the emergence of online misbehavior [16], while the latter are linked to the effectiveness of a given intervention for a given user [2,10]. Knowledge of such individual characteristics is instrumental in the development of effective PMIs.…”
Section: The Case For Personalization In Online Moderationmentioning
“…The counternarrative has been studied as a means of confronting hate speech. Many researchers report that counternarratives are effective for reducing hate online (Hangartner et al, 2021). Several NGOs, such as Dangerous Speech Project 2 , are working to promote counterspeech, and social networking platforms are also encouraging the use of counterspeech.…”
Section: It Is Defined By the United Nations Strategy Andmentioning