2017
DOI: 10.1097/md.0000000000007671
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Abstract: The role of cytokines in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and effects of fenofibrate on cytokines were explored by observing changes in serum IL-1β, TNF-α, VEGF, and Lp-PLA2 in different stages of DR and the intervention effect of oral fenofibrate on cytokines.In total, 190 patients with type 2 DR were enrolled and divided into 3 groups: diabetic without retinopathy (NDR) group (n = 30), nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) group (n = 80), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) group (n = 80). According… Show more

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Cited by 14 publications
(20 citation statements)
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References 21 publications
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“…The 19 articles were further excluded for lack of necessary data on VEGF levels, no appropriate comparison groups, and patient samples that overlapped with another study. Finally, 29 studies met the inclusion criteria [1947], and a flowchart of the included and excluded studies is shown in Figure 1.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The 19 articles were further excluded for lack of necessary data on VEGF levels, no appropriate comparison groups, and patient samples that overlapped with another study. Finally, 29 studies met the inclusion criteria [1947], and a flowchart of the included and excluded studies is shown in Figure 1.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…However, results obtained from those studies were also in line with results presented here where VEGF is higher in DM type 2 patients with DR compared to no-DR patients. Internationally, in spite of the conflicting results from different projects [ 40 43 ], most studies indicate a higher VEGF serum level in DM type 2 patients affected by DR. Nevertheless, variations in VEGF serum levels exist either regionally or internationally.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…We suspect that, rather than inducing PPARα directly in the retina, fenofibrate acts systemically via the liver to modulate circulating cytokines, growth factors and/or lipids that indirectly impact the retina. A reduction in diabetes-induced elevation of serum IL-1β, TNFα, VEGF, and Lp-LPA2 has been reported in diabetic patients in response to fenofibrate [ 38 ]. In a mouse model of diabetes, fenofibrate treatment was shown to increase serum Fgf21, resulting in local induction of oxidative stress response genes in the retina and kidney [ 37 , 39 ].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%