Abstract:Animal mucosal barriers constantly interact with the external environment, and this interaction is markedly different in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Transitioning from water to land was a critical step in vertebrate evolution, but the immune adaptations that mucosal barriers such as the skin underwent during that process are essentially unknown. Vertebrate animals such as the African lungfish have a bimodal life, switching from freshwater to terrestrial habitats when environmental conditions are not … Show more
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