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Abstract: Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for insomnia, depression, and anxiety consisting of pulsed, low-intensity current applied to the earlobes or scalp. Despite empirical evidence of clinical efficacy, its mechanism of action is largely unknown. The goal was to characterize the acute effects of CES on resting state brain activity. Our primary hypothesis was that CES would result in deactivation in cortical and subcortical regions. Eleven healt… Show more

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Cited by 51 publications
(38 citation statements)
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References 46 publications
(51 reference statements)
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“…Previous neuroimaging studies have claimed that CES has beneficial effects in conditions such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, stress, and pain [26], [29]. A recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study tested 0.5-and 100-Hz stimulation on healthy controls, using blocks of 22 s "on" alternating with 22 s of baseline (device was "off"), suggesting that CES caused cortical brain deactivation in prefrontal and parietal regions [30]. Electroencephalographic studies showed that CES increased alpha activity (increased relaxation), decreased delta activity (reduced fatigue), and decreased beta activity (decreased ruminative thoughts) [26], [31].…”
Section: Normalization Of Intrinsic Neural Circuits Governingmentioning
confidence: 99%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…Previous neuroimaging studies have claimed that CES has beneficial effects in conditions such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, stress, and pain [26], [29]. A recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study tested 0.5-and 100-Hz stimulation on healthy controls, using blocks of 22 s "on" alternating with 22 s of baseline (device was "off"), suggesting that CES caused cortical brain deactivation in prefrontal and parietal regions [30]. Electroencephalographic studies showed that CES increased alpha activity (increased relaxation), decreased delta activity (reduced fatigue), and decreased beta activity (decreased ruminative thoughts) [26], [31].…”
Section: Normalization Of Intrinsic Neural Circuits Governingmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In this way, the current may initially stimulate afferent branches of cranial nerves. Then stimulation may be carried from branches of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and/or the vagus nerves to the brainstem, the thalamus, and finally the cortex [30]. We, therefore, hypothesized that CES could alter intrinsic brain activity and connectivity, which in turn improves the neuro dysfunction and leads to the normalization of intrinsic neural circuits governing TS.…”
Section: Normalization Of Intrinsic Neural Circuits Governingmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Stimulation may initially occur at branches of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and/or the vagus nerves that originate near the electrode placement on the earlobe, then are carried to the brainstem, the thalamus, and finally the cortex. 44 CES may cause cortical brain deactivation, producing changes similar to those produced by anxiolytic medications. 45 Clinically, drugs (including anxiolytics/anti-depressants) may have the same improvement on psychological disturbance similar to CES, but drugs can become habit forming, and also patients can develop a tolerance which results in an increasingly required dosage during treatment.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…This work has paved the way for numerous studies using rs-fMRI to address questions regarding efficiency and strength of numerous large-scale neuronal networks in the absence of a task and how these networks are altered by various pathology. For example, groups using rs-fMRI to measure functional connectivity (van den Heuvel and Hulshoff Pol, 2010) as an outcome measure have noted that anodal tDCS of the DLPFC altered the rs-FC within the default mode network and task positive network (Feusner et al, 2012;Keeser et al, 2011). Further, researchers noted that anodal tDCS of the right DLPFC increases rs-FC with the contralateral DLPFC but concurrently reduces short-range rs-FC in regions close to the anode following stimulation (Park et al, 2013).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 96%