2010
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Abstract: Total organic halogen (TOX) is a collective parameter and a toxicity indicator for all the halogenated organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in a water sample. TOX can be measured with the adsorption-pyrolysis method based on Standard Method 5320B. This method involves concentration of organic halogens from water by adsorption onto activated carbon (AC) and removal of inorganic halides present on the AC by competitive displacement by nitrate ions. Since AC can also act as a reductant, this work studied whethe… Show more

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“…It should be noted that several of the extremely small fragments formed after the treatments may have been removed during the ultrafiltration step in the sample preparation. Scrolled GO sheets in the LCGO and HCGO samples, which were also found in our previous study (Li et al, 2010), may be due to asymmetric distributions of cations, creating a polarization that is relieved by curling (Schaak and Mallouk, 2000). The fragmentation of chlorinated GO nanosheets appeared to be intensified upon irradiation as can be seen in the much smaller sizes of PLCGO and PHCGO samples (Fig.…”
Section: Phcgosupporting
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“…It should be noted that several of the extremely small fragments formed after the treatments may have been removed during the ultrafiltration step in the sample preparation. Scrolled GO sheets in the LCGO and HCGO samples, which were also found in our previous study (Li et al, 2010), may be due to asymmetric distributions of cations, creating a polarization that is relieved by curling (Schaak and Mallouk, 2000). The fragmentation of chlorinated GO nanosheets appeared to be intensified upon irradiation as can be seen in the much smaller sizes of PLCGO and PHCGO samples (Fig.…”
Section: Phcgosupporting
“…If GO is not fully removed during earlier stages of (waste)water treatment, it will reach the chlorine disinfection step where it will be exposed to both disinfection and, perhaps, sunlight irradiation (Gottschalk et al, 2009;Wang et al, 2012b). Chlorination can potentially change the morphology and the oxygen-containing functional groups of carbonaceous materials, including GO (Li et al, 2010;Liu and Zhang, 2014;Stratakis et al, 2014;Savva et al, 2014;Zhai et al, 2014;Du et al, 2016;Li et al, 2016). Concurrent or subsequent sunlight irradiation of chlorinated GO may result in further transformation, affecting further the physicochemical properties (and thus, environmental implications) of GO.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…TOX was differentiated into total organic chlorine (TOCl), total organic bromine (TOBr), and total organic iodine (TOI). It was measured according to Standard Method 5320B (Eaton et al, 2012), except that an off-line ion chromatograph was used as a halide separator and detector for the measurements of TOCl and TOBr (Li et al, 2010(Li et al, , 2011Liu and Zhang, 2013), and the Waters ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was used for the measurement of TOI (Pan and Zhang, 2013). Ascorbic acid was added to 2 L plastic fluorine-lined containers for nitrosamine and nitramine analysis by a modified version of EPA Method 521 (Walse and Mitch, 2008).…”
Section: Environmental Measurementsmentioning
“…According to our previous study, 17 AC slightly treated with ozone can minimize its reductive property and meantime maintain its adsorption capacity for organic halogen. OAC was prepared in the same manner in this study.…”
Section: Ac Treatmentmentioning